Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: “Coercion Experience Scale” (CES) - validation of a questionnaire on coercive measures | Bergk et al. BMC Psychiatry 2010 10 5 http 1471-244X 10 5 BMC Psychiatry RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Coercion Experience Scale CES - validation of a questionnaire on coercive measures Jan Bergk Erich Flammer Tilman Steinert Abstract Background Although the authors of a Cochrane Review on seclusion and mechanical restraint concluded that there is a surprising and shocking lack of published trials on coercive interventions in psychiatry there are only few instruments that can be applied in trials. Furthermore as main outcome variable safety psychopathological symptoms and duration of an intervention cannot meet the demand to indicate subjective suffering and impact relevant to posttraumatic stress syndromes. An instrument used in controlled trials should assess the patients subjective experiences needs to be applicable to more than one intervention in order to compare different coercive measures and has to account for the specific psychiatric context. Methods The primary version of the questionnaire comprised 44 items nine items on restrictions to human rights developed on a clinical basis and 35 items on stressors derived from patients comments during the pilot phase of the study. An exploratory factor analysis EFA using principal axis factoring PAF was carried out. The resulting factors were orthogonally rotated via VARIMAX procedure. Items with factor loadings less than .50 were eliminated. The reliability of the subscales was assessed by calculating Cronbach. Results Data of 102 patients was analysed. The analysis yielded six factors which were entitled Humiliation Physical adverse effects Separation Negative environment Fear and Coercion . These six factors explained of the total variance. Cronbach alpha ranged from .67 to .93 which can be interpreted as a high internal consistency. Convergent and discriminant validity yielded both highly significant results r .79 p .001 resp. r .38 p .001 . Conclusions The Coercion Experience Scale .