Interactions Between Agroecosystems and Rural Communities - Chapter 5

Như agroecologists đã ghi nhận một thời gian, rừng là những thành phần quan trọng của agroecosystems vì Fallows rừng sản xuất thực phẩm và chất xơ, khôi phục lại màu mỡ của đất, và góp phần kiểm soát cỏ dại. Họ cung cấp cho nông nghiệp với một "trợ cấp từ thiên nhiên" | 5 Forest Conservation and Degradation in a SubSubsistence Agricultural System Community and Forestry in Mexico Daniel James Klooster CONTENTS Introduction Communities and Agroecosystems Community Agriculture and Forestry The Case of San Martin Ocotlan Milpa Cultivation and Other Agricultural Activities The Economics of Sub-Subsistence Agriculture Complements of the Milpa A Forest-Dependent Peasantry The Community Dynamics of Timber Poaching Social Structures Values and the Forestry-Agriculture Relationship Distribution of Benefits Social and Political Structures The Forest as an Economic Subsidy Forest Management A Struggle for the Forest Conclusion Acknowledgments References INTRODUCTION As agroecologists have noted for some time forests are vital components of agroecosystems because forest fallows produce food and fiber restore soil fertility and contribute to weed control. They provide agriculture with a subsidy from nature Alcorn 1989 Hecht Anderson and May 1988 . Agroecology less often considers the role of forests as sources of economic subsidy to agricultural systems increasingly 2001 by CRC Press LLC unable to provide the sole basis for community reproduction in a context of globalization. Understanding the sustainability implications of this connection however requires broader consideration of the relation between agroecosystems and the human communities that make them function. COMMUNITIES AND AGROECOSYSTEMS Communities and agroecosystems are composed of interpenetrating components that influence one another in a co-evolutionary process of change. The activities related to producing food fiber and cash crops provide the link between the biophysical components of an agroecosystem and the social system. Many communities in rural settings affirm and recreate themselves largely through productive activities nested in their agroecosystems. Through routines of work such as planting and harvesting related rituals and the social relationships that accompany these

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