Tham khảo tài liệu 'sensors, focus on tactile, force and stress sensors 2011 part 9', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, cơ khí - chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả | Grip Force and Slip Analysis in Robotic Grasp New Stochastic Paradigm Through Sensor Data Fusion 231 to disassociate the noise effects from the valid sensor data so that no erroneous reading can crop in during situations where no object is present physically we need to bias the environment vis-à-vis optimization process with the null hypothesis H0 . b. Situations where Ho or Hl are associated with penalty coefficients Here the general expression for global threshold X0 is given as Ằ PH 0W10 - Coo 0 P H1 Co1 - Cu 22 where Cjj refers to the cost penalty of accepting Hi when Hj is true V i j 0 1 . Now for a non-specific case it goes very fine if we assume the values of the cost-coefficients viz. numerically C10 Coo C01 C11 to be 1 0 1 0 respectively. As a matter of fact these are the standard values of the cost-coefficients used in majority of the fusion problems and hence the numerical value of the global threshold becomes . However the impended bias situation does arise not only because of the probabilistic values of the null and alternative hypotheses but also the cost involved in accepting the incorrect hypothesis. For example if a specific situation demands inherent bias to be incorporated then X0 will be a function of both P Hk V k 0 1 and Cij V i j 0 1 . In other words we can certainly have non-zero values for C00 C11 and non-unity values for C10 C01. In a way this metric of evaluating global threshold is not unique and cannot be tackled by LLR or N-P method when all Cij s are numerically different. In case of robotic grasp we often need to use one or more penalty coefficients as the exact model for X0 should account for instances like detecting point-force grasping micro-objects rectifying the readings from faulty taxels or correcting noise-levels of the taxels. In such situations we need to use wherein the value of X0 will not be equal to unity and thereby that value of X0 will be unfit for LLR or N-P to process further. Thus we can observe that .