More generally, private participation can successfully improve access to infrastructure services (telecommunication, energy, transport, water), where workable competition can be introduced, for example in many telecommunication systems. In non- competitive markets, case by case decisions are required to assess whether public or private provision may be preferable depending, in particular, on whether more risks for commercial performance can be shifted effectively to the private sector. At the same time, appropriate regulatory regimes are required to exercise necessary governance functions for both public or private provision. xii. Social Services. The challenge is to build nation-wide systems that provide.