Syntactic theories based on the concept of dependency have a long tradition. Tesni` re (Tesni` re, e e 1959) was the ﬁrst who systematically described the sentence structure in terms of binary relations between words (dependencies), which form a dependency tree (D-tree for short). D-tree itself does not presume a linear order on words. However, any its surface realization projects some linear order relation (called also precedence). Some properties of surface syntactic structure can be expressed only in terms of both dependency (or its transitive closure called dominance) and precedence. .