No one ever gave me directions like this on a golf course before: "Aim at either Microsoft or IBM." I was standing on the first tee at the KGA Golf Club in downtown Bangalore, in southern India, when my playing partner pointed at two shiny glass-and-steel buildings off in the distance, just behind the first green. The Goldman Sachs building wasn't done yet; otherwise he could have pointed that out as well and made it a threesome. HP and Texas Instruments had their offices on the back nine, along the tenth hole. That wasn't all. The tee markers were from | The World is Flat Thomas Friedman Designed by Jonathan D. Lippincott I 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 To Matt and Kay and to Ron Contents How the World Became Flat One: While I Was Sleeping Two: The Ten Forces That Flattened the World Flattener #l. 11/9/89 Flattener #2. 8/9/95 Flattener #3. Work Flow Software Flattener #4. Open-Sourcing Flattener #5. Outsourcing Flattener #6. Offshoring Flattener #7. Supply-Chaining Flattener #8. Insourcing Flattener #9. In-forming Flattener #10. The Steroids Three: The Triple Convergence Four: The Great Sorting Out America and the Flat World Five: America and Free Trade Six: The Untouchables Seven: The Quiet Crisis Eight: This Is Not a Test Developing Countries and the Flat World Nine: The Virgin of Guadalupe Companies and the Flat World Geopolitics and the Flat World Ten: How Companies Cope Eleven: The Unflat World Twelve: The Dell Theory of Conflict Prevention Conclusion: Imagination Thirteen: 11/9 Versus 9/11 Acknowledgments Index I How the World Became Flat ONE While I Was Sleeping Your Highnesses, as Catholic Christians, and princes who love and promote the holy Christian faith, and are enemies of the doctrine of Mahomet, and of all idolatry and heresy, determined to send me, Christopher Columbus, to the above- mentioned countries of India, to see the said princes, people, and territories, and to learn their disposition and the proper method of converting them to our holy faith; and furthermore directed that I should not proceed by land to the East, as is customary, but by a Westerly route, in which direction we have hitherto no certain evidence that anyone has gone. - Entry from the journal of Christopher Columbus on his voyage of 1492 No one ever gave me directions like this on a golf course before: "Aim at either Microsoft or IBM." I was standing on the first tee at the KGA Golf Club in downtown Bangalore, in southern India, when my playing partner pointed at two shiny glass-and-steel buildings off in the distance, .