A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) was first published by the Project Management Institute (PMI) as a white paper in 1983 in an attempt to document and standardize generally accepted project management information and practices. The first edition was published in 1996 followed by the second edition in 2000. In 2004, the PMBOK Guide — Third Edition was published with major changes from the previous editions. The latest English-language PMBOK Guide — Fourth Edition was released on December 31, 2008. Work on the Fifth Edition is in development. On February 17 2012 an Exposure Draft of | A GUIDE TO THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT BODY OF KNOWLEDGE PMI Standards Committee William R. Duncan, Director of Standards Project Management Institute Four Campus Boulevard Newtown Square, PA 19073-3299 USA Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A guide to the project management body of knowledge. p. cm. “1996 ed.”—Pref. “This . supersedes PMI’s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) document that was published in 1987”—Pref. Includes index. ISBN: 1-880410-12-5 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN: 1-880410-13-3 (hdbk) 1. Industrial project management. I. Project Management Institute. II. Project management body of knowledge (PMBOK) 1996 ’04—dc20 95-39934 CIP PMI Publishing Division welcomes corrections and comments on its documents. In addition to comments directed to PMI about the substance of A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, please feel free to send comments on typographical, formatting, or other errors. Simply make a copy of the relevant page of the PMBOK Guide, mark the error, and send it to: PMI Publishing Division, Forty Colonial Square, Sylva, North Carolina 28779 USA, phone: 828/586-3715, fax: 828/586-4020, e-mail: pmihq@. Copyright ©1996 by the Project Management Institute. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, manual, photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher. Send permission request to Permissions, PMI Publishing Division, Forty Colonial Square, Sylva, North Carolina 28779 USA. “PMI” is a federally registered trade and service mark; “PMP” and the PMP logo are federally registered certification marks; and the PMI logo, “PMBOK” and “Building professionalism in project management.” are trademarks of Project Management Institute. Printed and bound by Automated Graphic Systems, White Plains, Maryland, USA. PMI publications are available at special .