Tham khảo tài liệu 'oxford learner's grammar 5', ngoại ngữ, ngữ pháp tiếng anh phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả | 123 Participle noun NOTE Try 10 avoid Writing sentences like this one. not Wttiking-rthing the street a firc-engint raced past . This hanging participle makes il sound as if the fire engine was walking which doesn t make sense. The subject of the main clause should be the people who were walking. Walking along the street we saw a fire engine race past. Here the subject of the main clause is the same as the understood subject of the participle But this doesn t always have to be so. The main thing is that there should be a clear connection between the two clauses. Knowing how little time she had this new delay infuriated her. I- Because she knew how little lime she had. she was infuriated by this new delay When adjusting the machine the electricity should be switched off. When you adjust the machine you should switch off the electricity 123 Participle noun A We can use an active or passive participle before a noun. The loam was welcomed by cheering crowds. crowds who were cheering Boiling water turns to steam. water which is bailing The experiment must be done under controlled conditions. conditions which are controlled The terrorists used a stolen car. a car which had been stolen In these examples the participle functions rather like an adjective. Compare cheering Clowds noisy crowds boiling waterlhot waler. Sea also Note a. It is often neater to use a participle noun than to use a clause such as crowds who were cheering. But we cannot always use a participle before a noun. For example we can talk about a barking dog but NOT -rw eating-dog. Sometimes we use a participle with a prefix. a rewritten version underfed children an overflowing drain a misspent youth an unsmiling face a disconnected telephone TIP Use only those participle noun combinations that you have already heard or seen like cheering crowds or controlled conditions. There are no rules about which verbs can be used in this way and which cannot. NOTE a Some words with the form of a participle art1 .