Applied Wetlands Science and Technology - Chapter 4

Ecological Risk Assessment of Wetlands - Cho đến gần đây, thuật ngữ đánh giá rủi ro thường được áp dụng đối với dự toán của nguy cơ đối với sức khỏe con người, thường là do tiếp xúc với hóa chất. Ví dụ, một nguy cơ ung thư đánh giá là một ước tính về nguy cơ đối với con người từ các hợp chất gây ung thư. Tuy nhiên gần đây, thuật ngữ đánh giá rủi ro đã được áp dụng cho các hệ thống sinh thái. Một đánh giá rủi ro sinh thái là một ước tính ảnh hưởng bất lợi. | Kent David J. et al Ecological Risk Assessment of Wetlands Applied Wetlands Science and Technology Editor Donald M. Kent Boca Raton CRC Press LLC 2001 CHAPTER 4 Ecological Risk Assessment of Wetlands David J. Kent Kenneth D. Jenkins and James F. Hobson CONTENTS The Human Health Risk Assessment Paradigm Ecological Risk Assessment The Ecological Risk Assessment Framework Problem Formulation Phase Choosing Biological Endpoints Spatial and Temporal Considerations Other Considerations Analysis Phase Exposure Characterization Ecological Effects Characterization Risk Characterization Phase Predictive Ecological Assessments Problem Formulation Exposure Characterization Ecological Effects Characterization Risk Characterization The Quotient Method for Risk Characterization Retrospective Ecological Assessments Problem Formulation Exposure Characterization Ecological Effects Characterization Risk Characterization Summary References 2001 CRC Press LLC Until recently the term risk assessment generally was applied to the estimate of risk to human health typically from chemical exposure. For example a cancer risk assessment is an estimate of the risk to humans from carcinogenic compounds. Recently however the term risk assessment has been applied to ecological systems. An ecological risk assessment is an estimate of the adverse effect to an ecosystem from chemical physical or biological stressors resulting from anthropogenic activity. This recent interest in assessing ecological health is evidenced by several publications Bartell et al. 1992 Cairns et al. 1992 Suter 1993 Newman and Strojan 1998 Lewis et al. 1999 including two documents produced by the . Environmental Protection Agency USEPA 1992 1998 . The first of these USEPA documents Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment 1992 was intended as the first step in a long-term program to develop guidelines for the performance of ecological risk assessments. The second document Guidelines for the Ecological Risk Assessment .