Applied Wetlands Science and Technology - Chapter 6

Wetland Enhancement, Restoration, and Creation John Zentner - Vùng đất ngập nước nước ngọt phát triển ở độ cao trên môi trường sống thủy sản nước mở và bên dưới vùng cao. Chúng được tìm thấy trong một loạt các điều kiện thủy văn, từ thường xuyên bị ngập nước (độ sâu 1 m) để theo mùa bão hòa. nước ngọt vùng đất ngập nước xảy ra trên nhiều loại đất bao gồm cả đất hữu cơ và khoáng sản, như cũng như trong điều kiện nonsoil. Hầu hết các vùng đất ngập nước nước ngọt là một trong hai đầm lầy nước ngọt hoặc. | Zentner John Wetland Enhancement Restoration and Creation Applied Wetlands Science and Technology Editor Donald M. Kent Boca Raton CRC Press LLC 2001 CHAPTER 6 Wetland Enhancement Restoration and Creation John Zentner CONTENTS Site Selection and Analysis Topography Vegetation Association Mapping Site History and Current Status Hydrological Analysis Soil Analysis Cultural Constraints Adjacent Site Conditions The Use of Template Associations Small-Scale Experimental Construction Goal Setting Elements of a Goal Statement Goal-Setting Process Practicability Construction Design Geography Size and Shape Location Slope Adjacent Uses Hydrology Hydroperiod and Depth Water Supply Soil 2001 CRC Press LLC Vegetation Succession Planting Design Plant Selection Stock Selection Planting Density Weed Control Cultural Issues Mosquitoes Water Quality Implementation Construction Sequencing Protective Flagging Weed Removal Salvaging Grading Planting Water Supply Fencing As Builts Maintenance Weed Control Erosion Control Herbivory Plant Care Irrigation System Maintenance Litter Removal General Maintenance Frequency Minimizing Maintenance Efforts Research Needs References Freshwater wetlands develop at elevations above open water aquatic habitats and below uplands. They are found in a wide range of hydrologic conditions from permanently flooded to a depth of 1 m to seasonally saturated. Freshwater wetlands occur on a wide variety of soil types including both organic and mineral soils as well as in nonsoil conditions. Most freshwater wetlands are either freshwater marshes or riparian woodlands. Freshwater marshes are dominated by herbaceous emergents and can be divided into three general categories reflective of hydrology Figure 1 . Wet meadows are temporarily or intermittently flooded and dominated by graminoids and Juncaceae. In the United States seasonal marshes are seasonally flooded or saturated and dominated by Cyperaceae and Juncaceae. Perennial marshes are permanently or 2001 CRC