Applied Wetlands Science and Technology - Chapter 7

Wetland Mitigation Banking - Giảm nhẹ tác động môi trường của các hành động phát triển cần thiết trên các vùng đất ngập nước và các nguồn lực khác thủy sản là một tiền đề trung tâm của chương trình đất ngập nước quy định. Bù lỗ thông qua việc phục hồi hoặc tạo ra các vùng đất ngập nước thay thế đã được quảng cáo là một cách để đạt được một mục tiêu không mất ròng của vùng đất ngập nước còn lại nguồn lực, trong khi vẫn cho phép các tác động không thể tránh khỏi xảy ra. Như minh. | Rolband Michael S. et al Wetland Mitigation Banking Applied Wetlands Science and Technology Editor Donald M. Kent Boca Raton CRC Press LLC 2001 CHAPTER 7 Wetland Mitigation Banking Michael S. Rolband Ann Redmond and Tom Kelsch CONTENTS Background Regulatory Context The Banking Process Types of Wetland Mitigation Banks Perspectives on Mitigation Banking Ecological Perspective Regulatory Management Perspective User Perspective Economics Demand for the Product Service Area Regulatory Climate Service Area Size Mitigation Ratios Performance Requirements Monitoring and Maintenance Requirements Permitting Difficulty Attitudes about Mitigation Alternatives Regulatory Stability User Requirements Competitive Supply of the Product and Product Alternatives On-Site Opportunity for Wetland Mitigation Off-Site Opportunities for Wetland Mitigation Other Wetland Banks In Lieu Fee Alternatives 2001 CRC Press LLC Risk Assessment and Presale of the Product Revenue Projections Costs of Mitigation Bank Development Land Costs Hard Costs Soft Costs Long-Term Stewardship Economic Projections References Mitigating the environmental impacts of necessary development actions on wetlands and other aquatic resources is a central premise of wetland regulatory programs. Offsetting losses through the restoration or creation of replacement wetlands has been promoted as a way to achieve a goal of no net loss of remaining wetland resources while still permitting unavoidable impacts to occur. As evidenced by recent studies however the effectiveness of on-site compensatory mitigation efforts has produced mixed results. Success rates range from 27 to 50 percent due in part to 22 to 34 percent of the mitigation projects never being built Redmond 1991 Gallihugh 1998 DeWeese 1994 Brown and Veneman 1998 . In response to problems associated with individual mitigation efforts there has been growing interest in the concept of mitigation banking. Mitigation banking refers to the restoration creation enhancement