Applied Wetlands Science and Technology - Chapter 11

Coastal Marsh Management - Khi người định cư châu Âu đầu tiên đến ở phía đông bắc Hoa Kỳ, họ thường giải quyết xung quanh đầm lầy nước mặn (Nixon, 1982). Đầm lầy đã được giá trị như một nguồn thực phẩm cho gia súc bởi vì có rất ít mở đất chăn thả. Thổ dân châu Mỹ Đông Bắc Hoa Kỳ, không giống như các đối tác của họ trong các phần khác của Bắc Mỹ, đã không thường xuyên duy trì vùng đất mở. Đầm lầy đã được sử dụng cho chăn thả cừu và gia súc ở châu Âu (Jensen, 1985),. | Buchsbaum Robert Coastal Marsh Management Applied Wetlands Science and Technology Editor Donald M. Kent Boca Raton CRC Press LLC 2001 CHAPTER 11 Coastal Marsh Management Robert Buchsbaum CONTENTS Historical Coastal Marsh Management Coastal Wetland Destruction Mosquito Control Biology of Salt Marsh Mosquitoes Habitat Alteration by Grid Ditching Pesticides and Bacterium Exploitation of Coastal Wetlands Marsh Diking Contemporary Marsh Management Recent Trends in Coastal Wetland Loss Mosquito Control by Open Marsh Water Management OMWM vs. Grid Ditching Effect of OMWM on Mosquitoes Effect of OMWM on Marsh Processes Other Potential Management Uses of OMWM Recommendations for Mosquito Control Impacts of Docks and Piers Buffer Zones and Coastal Wetlands Water Quality Aspects of Buffers Pathogenic Microorganisms Nitrogen Wildlife Habitat Aspects of Buffers Examples of Buffer Protection Programs Restoration of Degraded Wetlands with Particular Emphasis on Introduced Species Future Considerations References 2001 CRC Press LLC HISTORICAL COASTAL MARSH MANAGEMENT When European settlers first arrived in the northeast United States they often settled around salt marshes Nixon 1982 . Marshes were valued as a source of food for livestock because there was little open grazing land. Native Americans of the northeastern United States unlike their counterparts in other parts of North America did not regularly maintain open lands. Marshes had traditionally been used for grazing sheep and cattle in Europe Jensen 1985 thus it was not surprising that they would be similarly valued in the New World. As more and more farmland was cleared for pasture attitudes toward coastal wetlands changed for the worse. Marshes were at best ignored and at worst were perceived as worthless land that bred mosquitoes and other pestilence. The best use of the coastal wetlands was in being reclaimed and put to some useful purpose. Up until about the 1970s the two most widespread management activities in .