Applied Wetlands Science and Technology - Chapter 12

Watershed Management - Đất ngập nước có xu hướng để chiếm các điểm địa hình thấp trong cảnh quan và do đó người nhận nước và vật liệu bị xói mòn từ cao trong phong cảnh. Dòng nước và các vật liệu khác cho mỗi vùng đất ngập nước nhân vật của nó, hỗ trợ nội bộ của mình quy trình, và một phần xác định chức năng đất ngập nước và giá trị. Trong ít ỏi hoặc vượt quá số lượng, nước và các tài liệu khác có thể thay đổi hoặc cản trở quá trình đất ngập nước và làm giảm. | Kent Donald M. Watershed Management Applied Wetlands Science and Technology Editor Donald M. Kent Boca Raton CRC Press LLC 2001 CHAPTER 12 Watershed Management Donald M. Kent CONTENTS Managing Watersheds Elements of Management Definition and Delineation Watershed Characterization Prioritization Developing and Implementing a Watershed Program Monitor and Adjust Source Control Municipal Wastewater Best Management Practices BMPs Agricultural BMPs Urban Stormwater Runoff BMPs Innovative Solutions Watershed-Based Trading Case Study the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Anacostia Watershed Restoration References Wetlands tend to occupy topographic low points in the landscape and are thus recipient of water and eroded materials from higher in the landscape. The influx of water and other materials gives each wetland its character supports its internal processes and in part determines wetland function and value. In meager or excess amounts water and other materials may alter or hinder wetland processes and 2001 CRC Press LLC diminish functions and values. Therefore effective wetland management requires management of parts of the landscape contributing water and other materials to wetlands. The contributing areas of the landscape constitute the watershed. The concept of managing at the scale of watersheds has been evolving in the United States for about 100 years. In the 1890s the . Inland Waterways Commission recommended to Congress that each river system be treated as an integrated system. Throughout the first half of the 20th century the focus of watershed management was on the use of water resources for energy navigation flood control irrigation and drinking water . Environmental Protection Agency 1995b . In 1944 the Pick-Sloan Plan proposed to reduce flood damage by constructing large dams. The plan was opposed by some that believed that more effective flood control could be accomplished by managing rural upstream watersheds than by constructing large dams Peterson 1998 .