Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment - Chapter 1

Overview of Ecological - Đánh giá rủi ro sinh thái là một quá trình hợp lý cho khách quan xác định xác suất ảnh hưởng xấu đến một sinh vật hoặc bộ sưu tập của các sinh vật khi thách thức với sửa đổi một môi trường như thay đổi khí hậu, xenobiotic tiếp xúc, nhiễm trùng với một sinh vật bệnh, hoặc một số căng thẳng tiềm năng khác. Mối liên hệ giữa tham số sản xuất hiệu quả (ví dụ, căng thẳng) và sinh vật (s) đáp ứng (tức là, các thụ thể) có thể truy cập chủ yếu là do suy luận. | 1 Overview of Ecological Risk Assessment in Coastal and Estuarine Environments Morris H. Roberts Jr. Michael C. Newman and Robert C. Hale CONTENTS Introduction Application of Risk Assessment in Estuaries Water Quality Criteria Sediment Quality Guidelines Toxics Characterization Relative Risk Assessment A Case Study of Risk Assessment in an Estuary Forum Organization References INTRODUCTION Ecological risk assessment is a logical process for objectively defining the probability of an adverse effect to an organism or collection of organisms when challenged with an environmental modification such as climatic change xenobiotic exposure infection with a disease organism or some other potential stressor. The link between the parameter producing the effect . the stressor and the organism s responding . the receptor is accessible mainly by inference in the absence of full and detailed knowledge. Long used in economics and health sciences risk assessment has a shorter history of application to ecological systems and even a shorter history for estuarine and coastal systems. The risk assessment paradigm in general and in ecological risk assessment in particular involves 1 problem formulation 2 parallel analyses of exposure and effects and 3 risk characterization1-5 Figure . Each aspect of the paradigm involves an integrative process connecting various inputs or data to one or more outputs or conclusions. Initial assessments are often imprecise pointing to data needs 2002 CRC Press LLC FIGURE The environmental risk assessment paradigm as presented by the . EPA. Information inputs are shown in boxes processes in ovals and outputs in circles. Modified from Reference 5. that if fulfilled allow more rigorous assessments of risk with improved certainty in the evaluation. Problem definition includes a determination of a valued resource such as a population of commercially important species or keystone species or 2002 CRC

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