Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment - Chapter 2

European Approaches to Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment - Liên minh châu Âu (EU) không phải là một cơ quan lập pháp quốc gia, chẳng hạn như liên bang Mỹ chính phủ, cũng không phải một tổ chức quốc tế, như Liên hợp quốc (UN). Các thành viên Liên minh châu Âu hoàn toàn các quốc gia có chủ quyền đã đầu hàng xây dựng một số luật và thực thi quyền hạn, do đó các quyền hạn của EU đi đáng kể ngoài những tổ chức quốc tế như Liên hợp quốc, nhưng không phải là xa như những người của chính phủ Mỹ | 2 European Approaches to Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment Mark Crane Neal Sorokin James Wheeler Albania Grosso Paul Whitehouse and David Morritt CONTENTS Introduction Legislative Procedure in The European Union Principles of Chemical Risk Assessment in the EU . Prospective Risk Assessment in the EU New Chemical Substances Existing Chemical Substances The Technical Guidance Document The Precautionary Principle What Is the Precautionary Principle When and How Should the Precautionary Principle Be Applied Remaining Problems with the Precautionary Principle Prospective Risk Assessment for Saltwater Environments in the EU Perceived Problems with Marine Risk Assessment in the EU Estimating a Saltwater PNEC Factors Potentially Affecting Correlations between Freshwater and Saltwater Toxicity Data Saltwater Species Sensitivity Distributions Retrospective Risk Assessments The Dangerous Substances Directive and Other Marine Regulations The Water Framework Directive Principles of the Water Framework Directive 2002 CRC Press LLC What Is Good Status for Marine Waters Direct Biological Assessment of the Tees Estuary A Case Study Conclusions Acknowledgments References INTRODUCTION The European Union EU is neither a national legislature such as the . federal government nor an international organization such as the United Nations UN . European Union members are completely sovereign states that have surrendered some law-making and enforcing powers so that the powers of the EU go considerably beyond those of international organizations such as the UN but not as far as those of the . This chapter briefly describes the political structure of the EU and the environmental regulations that have emerged from this structure. Much of the environmental legislation from the EU has been fragmentary addressing single issues or