Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment - Chapter 3

Emerging Contaminants - Vùng ven biển và cửa sông là vị trí chiến lược, phục vụ như là điểm đầu mối thương mại, cũng như nhà một phần lợi nhuận của dân số. Kết quả là, họ cũng nhận được một phần lợi nhuận của các chất gây ô nhiễm được phát hành. Do vị trí của họ và đặc điểm vật lý và hóa học của họ, họ cũng có thể nhận được và cái bẫy đóng góp thêm từ các lưu vực sông upgradient và nhà kho không khí | 3 Emerging Contaminants of Concern in Coastal and Estuarine Environments Robert C. Hale and Mark J. La Guardia CONTENTS Introduction Brominated Fire Retardants Polychlorinated Biphenyls Natural and Synthetic Estrogens Alkylphenol Ethoxylates and Associated Degradation Products Other Pharmaceuticals Nonpharmaceutical Antimicrobial Agents Personal Care Products Interaction of Multiple Stressors Multiple Xenobiotic Resistance STP Sludge Conclusions Acknowledgments References INTRODUCTION Coastal and estuarine areas are strategically located serving as focal points for commerce as well as homes to a disproportionate share of the human population. As a consequence they also receive a disproportionate share of the contaminants released. Because of their locations and their physical and chemical characteristics they may also receive and trap additional contributions from upgradient watersheds and air sheds. Thus these systems may be more vulnerable to degradation than less dynamic environments. Despite this coastal and estuarine areas are very important wildlife habitats serving as refuges and nurseries for a variety of organisms. The initial and perhaps most important step in risk assessment regardless of the system is problem identification see Chapter 1 for a discussion of the elements of 2002 CRC Press LLC risk assessment . Ideally identification of environmentally problematic chemicals should be done prior to the occurrence of significant environmental damage. In practice this process is often reactive occurring after deleterious impacts of significant magnitude have already occurred. Chemicals that have emerged as problems in the past include organochlorine pesticides . effects on reproductive success of piscivorous birds and deformities in reptiles mercury . accumulation in coastal marine life and resulting Minamata disease in Japanese residents polybrominated biphenyls . PBB contamination of .