Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment - Chapter 10

Effects of Chronic Stress - Như một xã hội, chúng tôi đã thực hiện cam kết đảm bảo chất lượng môi trường, không chỉ cho giá trị trực tiếp của nó đối với con người, mà còn để hỗ trợ thuỷ sản và các động vật hoang dã loài. Những cam kết này đã trở thành nhiệm vụ pháp lý trong các hình thức của pháp luật như Đạo luật Nước sạch. Trong ý nghĩa chung nhất, tác dụng phụ trên động vật hoang dã loài gây ra bởi hoạt động của con người, hoặc áp lực con người, dẫn đến thay. | 10 Effects of Chronic Stress on Wildlife Populations A Population Modeling Approach and Case Study Diane E. Nacci Timothy R. Gleason Ruth Gutjahr-Gobell Marina Huber and Wayne R. Munns Jr. CONTENTS Introduction A Population Matrix Modeling Approach A Stressor of Ecotoxicological Concern A Case Study Toxicological Responses Matrix Model Projections Compensatory Mechanisms Life History Shifts Compensatory Demographic Responses Physiological Response Shifts Compensatory Toxicological Responses The Scale of Evolutionary Effects Risks of Selection and Adaptation A Population Modeling Approach and Case Study Conclusions Acknowledgments References INTRODUCTION As a society we have made commitments to preserve environmental quality not only for its direct value to humans but also to support aquatic and other wildlife species. These commitments have become legal mandates in the form of legislation 2002 CRC Press LLC such as the Clean Water Act. In the most general sense adverse effects on wildlife species caused by human activities or anthropogenic stress result in changes to their densities and distributions. Although such changes can be measured at varying levels of biological organization populations have been defined as a valued unit for wildlife protection and management. There has been controversy as to whether or not wildlife protection at levels of biological organization higher than the individual truly reflects societal values and whether or not it is However the impetus toward using the population as the protection unit has occurred for scientific as well as political reasons. Scientifically some ecologists regard populations as sustainable units valued for important properties beyond those inherent to individuals . emergent properties . Others regard this move as a practical response to the increased recognition that environmental management involves choices and .