Coastal and Estuarine Risk Assessment - Chapter 11

Structuring Population Christopher - Đánh giá rủi ro sinh thái không phải là một nỗ lực khoa học thuần tuý. Thay vào đó, nó là nhất áp dụng phổ biến như một bài tập về tuân thủ quy định nhằm mục đích để minh họa khách quan có thể chứng minh tác hại (hoặc thiếu đó) là kết quả của con người xác định hoạt động. Hướng dẫn pháp lý là giới hạn để chỉ thị rất rộng đòi hỏi phải bảo vệ của môi trường khỏi bị tổn hại. Thật không may, định nghĩa gây tổn hại có thể được tranh cãi | 11 Structuring Population- Based Ecological Risk Assessments in a Dynamic Landscape Christopher E. Mackay Jenee A. Colton and Gary Bigham CONTENTS Introduction Ecological Risk Assessment Model Risk Model Parameterization Mercury Concentration in Fish P C . A Heron Exposure Rate P ER Spatial Function Toxicity Response Function Population-Based Risk Characterization PHpulation Modeling for the Great Blue Heron Characterization of Population Dynamics Discussion References INTRODUCTION Ecological risk assessment is not a purely scientific endeavor. Rather it is most commonly applied as an exercise in regulatory compliance intended to illustrate objectively demonstrable harm or lack thereof as the result of identified human activities. Fegal guidance is limited to very broad directives requiring the protection ofthe environment from h m. Unfortunately the definition of harm can be con-tenoious. Risks to individual plants or animals are the easiest types of impacts to identify. However within the context of providing protection to the environment the magnitude of individual impacts may very well represent inconsequential 2002 CRC Press LLC events. Therefore the characterization of harm may be misrepresented if limited solely to the individual. Simple and transparent . easy to understand and replicate methods should be developed for application in a regulatory context to expand thescope of ecological risk assessments to the level of spatially defined subpopulations and populations in order to determine whether an activity or activities in queetion actually represent an unacceptable risk within the legal context of environmental protection. This chapter examines a probabilistic method of population-level ecological risk assessment. It is intended for application within the regulatory context of a remedial investigation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and .