Tham khảo tài liệu 'concrete in hot environments - chapter 6', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, kiến trúc - xây dựng phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả | 6 Vertical Formwork Systems Crane-Dependent Systems Introduction to Vertical Formwork Systems Conventional Wall Columns Forming Systems Ganged Forming Systems Jump Forms Copyright Marcel Dekker Inc. All rights reserved. INTRODUCTION TO VERTICAL FORMWORK SYSTEMS Formwork development has paralleled the growth of concrete construction throughout the twentieth century. As concrete has come of age and been assigned increasingly significant structural tasks form manufacturers have had to keep pace. Form designers and builders are becoming increasingly aware of the need to keep abreast of technological advancements in other materials fields in order to develop creative innovations that are required to maintain quality and economy in the face of new formwork challenges. Formwork was once built in place used once and subsequently wrecked. The trend today however is toward increasing prefabrication assembly in large units erection by mechanical means and continuing reuse of forms. These developments are in keeping with the increasing mechanization of production in other fields. Vertical formwork systems are those used to form the vertical supporting elements of the structure columns core walls and shear walls. The functions of the vertical supporting systems are to transfer the floor loads to the foundation and to resist the lateral wind and earthquake loads. Consequently the construction of vertical structural elements precedes flat horizontal work. Typical vertical formwork systems utilized in construction include conventional formwork ganged forms jump forms slipforms and selfraising forms. Formwork systems for vertical concrete work can be classified into two main categories namely crane-dependent systems and crane-independent systems. Gang formwork and jump form Copyright Marcel Dekker Inc. All rights reserved. are classified under crane-dependent systems. On the other hand slipform and self-raising formwork are classified as crane independent .