Assessing the Impact of Transport and Energy Infrastructure on Poverty Reduction - Chapter 2

LITERATURE REVIEW SYNOPSIS - Sau khi nghiên cứu tài liệu đã được hoàn thành vào năm 2001, Ngân hàng Phát triển Châu Á, như là một phần của một đánh giá tổng thể của 5 năm Chiến lược Giảm nghèo (PRS) của nó (ADB 2004a), xem xét và phân tích một lượng lớn dữ liệu và văn học xuất bản vào đói nghèo ở châu Á và Thái Bình Dương, vai trò của tăng trưởng và phát triển xã hội và cơ sở hạ tầng trong xóa đói giảm nghèo, tác động của PRS về hoạt động cấp quốc. | Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW SYNOPSIS Introduction After the literature review was completed in 2001 ADB as part of an overall review of its 5-year-old Poverty Reduction Strategy PRS ADB 2004a reviewed and analyzed large amounts of data and published literature on poverty in Asia and the Pacific the roles of growth and social development and of infrastructure in poverty reduction the impact of the PRS on country-level operations and project designs and the monitoring and evaluation of the strategy poverty assessment reports and country strategies and programs. The PRS Review incorporates and updates the review carried out for this study. Poverty Having adopted poverty reduction as the primary goal of its development activity ADB 1999a ADB is pursuing poverty reduction in Asia and the Pacific in the context of its four other strategic objectives promoting economic growth human development and sound environmental management and improving the status of women. ADB subscribes to the Millennium Development Goals MDGs established in the 1990s by the countries of the international development community including a 50 reduction by the year 2015 in the proportion of the world s population living in extreme Much progress has already been made and despite occasional setbacks as the region s economy becomes more closely linked to the global economy it is expected that these ambitious goals can be achieved ADB 1999b . Progress in poverty reduction is vulnerable to external economic shocks such as the East Asian financial crisis Extreme poverty has been defined as per capita consumption valued at less than 1 a day in 1993 purchasing power parity prices. or the sudden liberalization of transitional economies in the Central Asian republics and to the uncertainties and security concerns that have adversely affected the global economy and hence the region since the late 1990s. Such shocks can at least temporarily push nonpoor households back below the poverty line. Progress