Assessing the Impact of Transport and Energy Infrastructure on Poverty Reduction - Chapter 5

PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA COUNTRY STUDY - Trung Quốc đã trưng bày đáng chú ý tăng trưởng kinh tế và thành công trong xóa đói giảm nghèo từ những năm 1980. Tổng thu nhập quốc dân bình quân đầu người ước tính khoảng $ 890 vào năm 2001, tương đương với $ trong năm 1993 sức mua tương đương Trung bình, Trung Quốc đông dân cư, với 136 người trên một cây số vuông (km2). Tuy nhiên, mật độ dân số thay đổi đáng kể từ các đô thị hoá và phát triển công nghiệp vùng ven biển. | Chapter 5 PEOPLE S REPUBLIC OF CHINA COUNTRY STUDY National Context The PRC is the most populous nation in the world with about billion people representing almost half of all people served by ADB and more than one fifth of all people in the world. The PRC has exhibited remarkable economic growth and success in poverty reduction since the 1980s. Its gross national income per capita was estimated at 890 in 2001 equivalent to 4 260 in 1993 purchasing power parity On the average the PRC is densely populated with 136 persons per square kilometer km2 . However population density varies considerably from the urbanized and industrially developed coastal areas to the remote provinces of the west. PRC social indicators are generally good with an average life expectancy of 70 and an adult illiteracy rate of 16 . The PRC has experienced explosive economic growth with an average annual growth rate of 10 between 1990 and 2001. The benefits of this growth have been fairly widespread although there is a distinct gradient of development from the eastern coastal areas through the central provinces to the relatively underdeveloped western part of the country. In the past inadequate infrastructure has been a major barrier to growth and to the diffusion of its benefits to all parts of the country. Since the PRC undertook market-oriented reforms and opened its economy to international trade the Government has invested heavily in infrastructure development with strong support from the development finance community. As incomes increased so did social inequity the country had a Gini index of 40 in 2001. The Government s poverty reduction programs seek to combat this problem. Poverty Reduction when the PRC was established in 1949 poverty was endemic in the country. Equitable distribution of wealth was central to its ideology and command economy. Economic reforms begun in 1978 aimed to transform the PRC into a socialist market economy with Chinese characteristics. These reforms