Assessing the Impact of Transport and Energy Infrastructure on Poverty Reduction - Chapter 7

INDIA COUNTRY STUDY - Tổng thu nhập quốc dân của nó bình quân đầu người năm 2001 là khoảng $ 460, tương đương đến $ 1993 mua điện này nơi Ấn Độ trong số các nước lowestincome trên thế giới. Đất nước đông dân cư (khoảng 350 người mỗi vuông km km2), và vẫn còn chủ yếu là nông thôn. Theo dữ liệu đến năm 1997, 44 triệu người ở Ấn Độ sống dưới  quốc tế "cực povertyÂ" dòng 1 USD mỗi ngày, và 86 triệu người đang sống trên ít hơn $ 2 mỗi ngày | Chapter 7 INDIA COUNTRY STUDY National Context India is a very large country with a population of more than 1 billion representing approximately one third of the population served by ADB and one sixth of the world population. Its gross national income per capita in 2001 was about 460 equivalent to 2 450 at 1993 purchasing power This places India among the lowest-income countries in the world. The country is densely populated about 350 persons per square kilometer km2 and still predominantly rural. According to 1997 data 44 million people in India were living below the international extreme poverty line of 1 per day and 86 million people were living on less than 2 per day. Inequality in India is slightly higher than in other South Asian countries with a Gini index of . Social welfare indicators are moderate the average life expectancy is 63 years and the adult illiteracy rate is 43 . A balance of payments crisis in 1991 temporarily slowed India s economic growth and triggered a process of widespread economic policy reform. This process relied heavily on privatization of public enterprises and reduction of public expenditures and public debt. The impact of these reforms on poverty reduction is the subject of much discussion. Many of the reforms were not fully implemented and public revenues declined along with expenditures. The response of the private sector was not as strong as expected. India now needs to achieve rates of more than 7 annual real gross domestic product GDP growth in order to sustain progress in reducing poverty. The target for the Tenth Five-Tear Plan 2002 2007 is an annual GDP growth rate of 8 . Poverty Reduction India has made steady progress in reducing poverty since the mid-1970s paralleling the growth of agricul 24 Data in this paragraph are taken from World Bank 2003a . tural output and public investment in infrastructure and human capital development World Bank 2000b updated in World Bank 2003c . In the last decade however the .