Nếu chúng ta để làm công lý cho các yêu cầu chỉ một phần của quá trình này, sau đó điều này sẽ gây nguy hiểm cho các giải pháp toàn bộ dự án. Như chúng ta đã biết từ các nghiên cứu của các hệ thống tự nhiên tạo ra, nó không phải là một kết quả của việc tối ưu hóa của bất kỳ chức năng cá nhân mà một hệ thống quy mô lớn có thể tồn tạ | Fig. 2 These are the trends that have a major influence on production technology. If we were to do justice to the requirements of only one part of this process then this would jeopardise the entire project solution. As we already know from studies of naturally created systems it is not as a result of the optimisation of any one individual function that a large scale system can survive but by virtue of the fact that it is sufficient for as many functions as possible to fulfil these only just well enough. The lesson from this is that we must not think in functions but in processes and must take a holistic approach to the development of solution concepts. 12 99 Examples of pneumatic applications 2 Examples of pneumatic applications Examples are provided by problem solutions that have been taken out of their complex context and simplified. If they are to be used for other purposes they must be adapted in terms of details and selected components in such a way that they will operate correctly in a specific environment. Festo offers a wealth of automation components for this purpose. The main groups of available components are as follows Cylinders with operating ranges from to 12 bar strokes from 1 to 17 000 mm piston-rod diameters from 1 to 63 mm piston rod diameters from to 320 mm thrust values at 6 bar from to 43 400 N speeds from 5 to 15 000 mm s 2 to 4 approachable positions Rotary drives with cylinder diameters from 6 to 100 mm angles of rotation from 1 to 360 torque values at 6 bar from to 150 Nm operating pressures from to 12 bar forces from 15 to 1 500 N Valves with connections from M3 to G1 1 2 nominal flow rates from 4 to 30 000 l min. functions from 2- to 8-way operating pressures from 0 to 12 bar nominal sizes from to 40 mm. If we compare pneumatic drives with other types of drives we can see that pneumatics is able to cover a very large area of applications. If high actuating forces are required hydraulics offers advantages while .