Transoesophageal Echocardiography study guide and practice mcqs phần 10

Lipomatous phì đại của IAS Lipomatous dày lên của IAS 1 cm lành tính "Dumb-chuông 'xuất hiện của IAS Thiếu sự tham gia của hố ovalis eustachian van = Remnant của van của xoang tĩnh mạch Xuất hiện ở 25% của các cá nhân Tại đường giao nhau của IVC và RA | 136 Transoesophageal Echocardiography Aortic disease Atherosclerosis Severe disease of descending aorta increases likelihood of aortic arch disease Grading I Minimal intimal thickening II Extensive widespread intimal thickening III Sessile atheroma IV Atheroma protruding into aortic lumen V Mobile protruding atheroma Aneurysm Dilatation of all layers of aortic wall Causes Atherosclerosis Cystic medial necrosis Trauma Congenital Marfan s Syphilis Affects ascending aorta aortic arch thoracic and abdominal aorta Dissection Degeneration destruction of media Associated with Hypertension Connective tissue disease Turner s syndrome Coarctation Extracardiac anatomy 137 Table Comparison of Stanford type A and B dissection Stanford A Stanford B Frequency 70 30 Age 50 70 Male female 2 1 3 1 Associated fBP 50 80 AI 50 10 Acute mortality 90 40 Classification 1 Stanford Table A proximal tear B distal tear 2 De Bakey I proximal tear extending distally II proximal tear IIIA distal tear extending proximally IIIB distal tear Management Stanford A surgery Stanford B medical therapy Multiple choice questions 1. Causes of pericardial effusion include all of the following except A Wilson s disease B neoplastic disease C trauma 138 Transoesophageal Echocardiography D rheumatoid arthritis E radiotherapy 2. Regarding intrapericardial pressure IPP A when IPP increases to equal venous pressure right ventricular filling pressure will equal left ventricular filling pressure B IPP is independent of intrapericardial volume C when IPP exceeds venous pressure stroke volume increases D IPP equals venous pressure at a volume of 500 ml E IPP is independent of pericardial compliance 3. In adults cardiac tamponade A is caused by an intrapericardial volume of 20 ml B is due to a gradual accumulation of a small amount of fluid C causes a rapid y descent on the central venous waveform D causes right atrial wall eversion in diastole E causes right ventricular wall inversion in diastole 4. The .